Posts Tagged ‘wormholes

Will Wormhole Travel Ever Be Possible?

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Science fiction’s favorite method for exploring the universe, most recently in the movie Interstellar, won’t be easy.

wormholeBy Loren Grush
As a curious species, humans have long dreamed of traveling to the farthest depths of space. That’s the major theme of the upcoming science fiction epic Interstellar, which will take Matthew McConaughey and Anne Hathaway to the places we hope to one day reach ourselves. Except for that tiny hiccup called deep space travel.

The universe is big. And along with its enormous size, it’s also incredibly spread-out; any neighboring planets, stars, and galaxies are depressingly distant. Proxima Centauri, the closest star to Earth, for example, is 4.22 light years away. If the fast-moving Voyager spacecraft attempted to reach Proxima Centauri, it would take the tiny probe more than 80,000 years to get there.

So how are we supposed to explore the universe in a way that won’t take us thousands of generations? Among the many concepts researchers have devised, one technique has remained particularly popular, especially in the realm of science fiction: shortcuts, or theoretical tunnels known as wormholes….. Read the rest of this entry »

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October 30, 2014 at 2:15 pm


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Distinguishing black holes and wormholes with orbiting hot spots

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Supermassive Black Hole At The Centre Of The Galaxy May Be A Wormhole In Disguise, Say Astronomers
And if it is a wormhole, this is how it would look…

One of the most extraordinary objects in the Milky Way galaxy is Sagittarius A* (pronounced Sagittarius A star). This small object is a bright source of radio waves in the constellation of Sagittarius that was discovered in 1974.

Since then, astronomers have made numerous observations of Sagittarius A* and the stars nearby, some of which orbit it at very high velocity. That implies that Sagittarius A* is extremely massive and since it is so small it must also be hugely dense.

That’s why many astronomers believe this object is a supermassive black hole lying at the centre of the galaxy. In fact, Sagittarius A* is about 4 million times more massive than the Sun packed into a volume not much bigger than the solar system.

But there is another explanation—that this massive dense object is a wormhole that connects our region of space to another point in the universe or even to another part of the multiverse. (Astrophysicists have long known that wormholes are allowed by the laws of general relativity and may well have formed soon after the Big Bang.) Read the rest of this entry »

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May 14, 2014 at 2:59 pm


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Creation of entanglement simultaneously gives rise to a wormhole

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A diagram of a wormhole, a hypothetical "shortcut" through the universe, where its two ends are each in separate points in spacetime. Credit: Wikipedia

A diagram of a wormhole, a hypothetical “shortcut” through the universe, where its two ends are each in separate points in spacetime. Credit: Wikipedia

Quantum entanglement is one of the more bizarre theories to come out of the study of quantum mechanics—so strange, in fact, that Albert Einstein famously referred to it as “spooky action at a distance.”

Essentially, entanglement involves two particles, each occupying multiple states at once—a condition referred to as superposition. For example, both particles may simultaneously spin clockwise and counterclockwise. But neither has a definite state until one is measured, causing the other particle to instantly assume a corresponding state. The resulting correlations between the particles are preserved, even if they reside on opposite ends of the universe.
But what enables particles to communicate instantaneously—and seemingly faster than the speed of light—over such vast distances? Earlier this year, physicists proposed an answer in the form of “wormholes,” or gravitational tunnels. The group showed that by creating two entangled black holes, then pulling them apart, they formed a wormhole—essentially a “shortcut” through the universe—connecting the distant black holes.
Now an MIT physicist has found that, looked at through the lens of string theory, the creation of two entangled quarks—the building blocks of matter—simultaneously gives rise to a wormhole connecting the pair.
The theoretical results bolster the relatively new and exciting idea that the laws of gravity holding together the universe may not be fundamental, but arise from something else: quantum entanglement.
Julian Sonner, a senior postdoc in MIT’s Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Center for Theoretical Physics, has published his results in the journal Physical Review Letters, where it appears together with a related paper by Kristan Jensen of the University of Victoria and Andreas Karch of the University of Washington.

The tangled web that is gravity
Ever since quantum mechanics was first proposed more than a century ago, the main challenge for physicists in the field has been to explain gravity in quantum-mechanical terms. While quantum mechanics works extremely well in describing interactions at a microscopic level, it fails to explain gravity—a fundamental concept of relativity, a theory proposed by Einstein to describe the macroscopic world. Thus, there appears to be a major barrier to reconciling quantum mechanics and general relativity; for years, physicists have tried to come up with a theory of quantum gravity to marry the two fields.

“There are some hard questions of quantum gravity we still don’t understand, and we’ve been banging our heads against these problems for a long time,” Sonner says. “We need to find the right inroads to understanding these questions.”
A theory of quantum gravity would suggest that classical gravity is not a fundamental concept, as Einstein first proposed, but rather emerges from a more basic, quantum-based phenomenon. In a macroscopic context, this would mean that the universe is shaped by something more fundamental than the forces of gravity.
This is where quantum entanglement could play a role. It might appear that the concept of entanglement—one of the most fundamental in quantum mechanics—is in direct conflict with general relativity: Two entangled particles, “communicating” across vast distances, would have to do so at speeds faster than that of light—a violation of the laws of physics, according to Einstein. It may therefore come as a surprise that using the concept of entanglement in order to build up space-time may be a major step toward reconciling the laws of quantum mechanics and general relativity.

Tunneling to the fifth dimension
In July, physicists Juan Maldacena of the Institute for Advanced Study and Leonard Susskind of Stanford University proposed a theoretical solution in the form of two entangled black holes. When the black holes were entangled, then pulled apart, the theorists found that what emerged was a wormhole—a tunnel through space-time that is thought to be held together by gravity. The idea seemed to suggest that, in the case of wormholes, gravity emerges from the more fundamental phenomenon of entangled black holes.
Following up on work by Jensen and Karch, Sonner has sought to tackle this idea at the level of quarks—subatomic building blocks of matter. To see what emerges from two entangled quarks, he first generated quarks using the Schwinger effect—a concept in quantum theory that enables one to create particles out of nothing. More precisely, the effect, also called “pair creation,” allows two particles to emerge from a vacuum, or soup of transient particles. Under an electric field, one can, as Sonner puts it, “catch a pair of particles” before they disappear back into the vacuum. Once extracted, these particles are considered entangled.
Sonner mapped the entangled quarks onto a four-dimensional space, considered a representation of space-time. In contrast, gravity is thought to exist in the next dimension as, according to Einstein’s laws, it acts to “bend” and shape space-time, thereby existing in the fifth dimension.
To see what geometry may emerge in the fifth dimension from entangled quarks in the fourth, Sonner employed holographic duality, a concept in string theory. While a hologram is a two-dimensional object, it contains all the information necessary to represent a three-dimensional view. Essentially, holographic duality is a way to derive a more complex dimension from the next lowest dimension.
Using holographic duality, Sonner derived the entangled quarks, and found that what emerged was a wormhole connecting the two, implying that the creation of quarks simultaneously creates a wormhole. More fundamentally, the results suggest that gravity may, in fact, emerge from entanglement. What’s more, the geometry, or bending, of the universe as described by classical gravity, may be a consequence of entanglement, such as that between pairs of particles strung together by tunneling wormholes.
“It’s the most basic representation yet that we have where entanglement gives rise to some sort of geometry,” Sonner says. “What happens if some of this entanglement is lost, and what happens to the geometry? There are many roads that can be pursued, and in that sense, this work can turn out to be very helpful.”

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December 5, 2013 at 4:22 pm


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Holographic Dual of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Pair has a Wormhole

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‘Spooky action’ builds a wormhole between ‘entangled’ quantum particles

This illustration demonstrates a wormhole connecting two black holes. Credit: Alan Stonebraker/American Physical Society

This illustration demonstrates a wormhole connecting two black holes. Credit: Alan Stonebraker/American Physical Society

Quantum entanglement, a perplexing phenomenon of quantum mechanics that Albert Einstein once referred to as “spooky action at a distance,” could be even spookier than Einstein perceived.

Physicists at the University of Washington and Stony Brook University in New York believe the phenomenon might be intrinsically linked with wormholes, hypothetical features of space-time that in popular science fiction can provide a much-faster-than-light shortcut from one part of the universe to another.
But here’s the catch: One couldn’t actually travel, or even communicate, through these wormholes, said Andreas Karch, a UW physics professor.
Quantum entanglement occurs when a pair or a group of particles interact in ways that dictate that each particle’s behavior is relative to the behavior of the others. In a pair of entangled particles, if one particle is observed to have a specific spin, for example, the other particle observed at the same time will have the opposite spin.
The “spooky” part is that, as research has confirmed, the relationship holds true no matter how far apart the particles are – across the room or across several galaxies. If the behavior of one particle changes, the behavior of both entangled particles changes simultaneously, no matter how far away they are.
Recent research indicated that the characteristics of a wormhole are the same as if two black holes were entangled, then pulled apart. Even if the black holes were on opposite sides of the universe, the wormhole would connect them.
Black holes, which can be as small as a single atom or many times larger than the sun, exist throughout the universe, but their gravitational pull is so strong that not even light can escape from them.
If two black holes were entangled, Karch said, a person outside the opening of one would not be able to see or communicate with someone just outside the opening of the other.
“The way you can communicate with each other is if you jump into your black hole, then the other person must jump into his black hole, and the interior world would be the same,” he said.
The work demonstrates an equivalence between quantum mechanics, which deals with physical phenomena at very tiny scales, and classical geometry – “two different mathematical machineries to go after the same physical process,” Karch said. The result is a tool scientists can use to develop broader understanding of entangled quantum systems.
“We’ve just followed well-established rules people have known for 15 years and asked ourselves, ‘What is the consequence of quantum entanglement?'”

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December 4, 2013 at 11:23 am


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Wormhole entanglement solves black hole paradox

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A new kind of wormhole

A new kind of wormhole

by Jacob Aron
WORMHOLES – tunnels through space-time that connect black holes – may be a consequence of the bizarre quantum property called entanglement. The redefinition would resolve a pressing paradox that you might be burned instead of crushed, should you fall into a black hole.

Knowing which hazard sign to erect outside a black hole isn’t exactly an everyday problem. For theoretical physicists, though, it reveals an inconsistency between quantum mechanics and general relativity. Solving this conundrum might lead to the sought-after quantum theory of gravity.

Relativity says if you fall into a black hole, you would die via “spaghettification” – a gradual stretching by ever-more intense gravitational forces. But last year, when Joseph Polchinski at the University of California in Santa Barbara and colleagues explored the quantum implications of black holes, they hit a problem. Black holes emit photons via something called Hawking radiation, and these are “entangled” with the interior of the black hole and also with each other. This breaks a quantum rule that particles can’t be entangled with two things at once.

To preserve quantum monogamy, Polchinski suggested last year that the black hole-photon entanglement breaks down. That causes a wall of energy at the black hole’s event horizon that wrecks relativity because anyone falling in would burn up rather turn to spaghetti. Welcome to the black hole firewall paradox.

Possible solutions abound but now two physics heavyweights, Juan Maldacena of the Institute for Advance Study in Princeton, and Leonard Susskind of Stanford University, California, have come up with the most audacious one yet: a new kind of wormhole that means the entanglement needn’t be broken in the first place.

First, the pair showed that these space-time tunnels, usually described by the maths of general relativity, also emerge from quantum theory, if two black holes are entangled. It’s as if the wormhole is the physical manifestation of entanglement.

The pair then extended this idea to a single black hole and its Hawking radiation, resulting in a new kind of wormhole (see diagram). Crucially, they suggest that this wormhole, which links a black hole and its Hawking radiation, may not be a problem for quantum monogamy in the way that normal entanglement is. As a result, the firewall needn’t appear, preserving relativity (

Patrick Hayden of McGill University in Montreal, Canada, finds the idea of wormholes from entangled black hole pairs convincing, but says more work is needed for the case of the black hole and a photon. Polchinski, meanwhile, is cautiously optimistic: “It certainly injects new ideas. But there is a lot that still needs to be filled in.”

There is still room for firewalls in the new wormhole definition. Maldacena and Susskind also outline how an observer outside the black hole could manipulate the Hawking radiation, creating a shock wave that travels down the wormhole and appears as a firewall. This may not screw up relativity because the firewall is optional, not intrinsic to the black hole. Maldacena hopes mulling these options will teach us about quantum gravity.


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June 22, 2013 at 7:47 am

Intergalactic subway: All aboard the wormhole express

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A tale of two wormholes

Video: What it would look like to travel through a wormhole

IT IS not every day that a piece of science fiction takes a step closer to nuts-and-bolts reality. But that is what seems to be happening to wormholes. Enter one of these tunnels through space-time, and a few short steps later you may emerge near Pluto or even in the Andromeda galaxy millions of light years away.

You probably won’t be surprised to learn that no one has yet come close to constructing such a wormhole. One reason is that they are notoriously unstable. Even on paper, they have a tendency to snap shut in the blink of an eye unless they are propped open by an exotic form of matter with negative energy, whose existence is itself in doubt.

Now, all that has changed. A team of physicists from Germany and Greece has shown that building wormholes may be possible without any input from negative energy at all. “You don’t even need normal matter with positive energy,” says Burkhard Kleihaus of the University of Oldenburg in Germany. “Wormholes can be propped open with nothing.”

The findings raise the tantalising possibility that we might finally be able to detect a wormhole in space. Civilisations far more advanced than ours may already be shuttling back and forth through a galactic-wide subway system constructed from wormholes. And eventually we might even be able to use them ourselves as portals to other universes……….

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Written by physicsgg

March 12, 2012 at 5:05 pm


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Statistical Mechanics of Wormholes

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Wormhole obtained by sewing together two Reissner-Nordstrom-type wormholes at their horizons

Paul H. Cox, Benjamin C. Harms, Shaoqi Hou
The statistical mechanics of a gas of Einstein-Kalb-Ramond wormholes is studied in this paper. The wormholes studied are the result of sewing together two Reissner-Nordstrom-type black hole metrics at their horizons. By requiring the stress-energy tensor associated with this geometry to be that of a Kalb-Ramond field, we obtain the mass and Kalb-Ramond `charge` of the wormholes in terms of the parameters describing the mass density, tension and pressure. We investigate the statistical mechanics of this system of wormholes within the context of the statistical bootstrap model. A gas of such wormholes is found to obey the bootstrap condition only for an extreme, non-thermodynamic, energy and `charge` distribution among the particles. We comment briefly on the scattering of quantum wormholes….
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October 10, 2011 at 7:53 am

Posted in High Energy Physics, RELATIVITY

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Stars Could Have Wormholes At Their Cores

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Chandra Finds Superfluid in Neutron Star’s Core
A new discovery from a famous exploded star has provided the first evidence for a bizarre state of matter in its core. Read more:

Scientists investigate the possibility of wormholes between stars
Wormholes are one of the stranger objects that arise in general relativity. Although no experimental evidence for wormholes exists, scientists predict that they would appear to serve as shortcuts between one point of spacetime and another. Scientists usually imagine wormholes connecting regions of empty space, but now a new study suggests that wormholes might exist between distant stars. Instead of being empty tunnels, these wormholes would contain a perfect fluid that flows back and forth between the two stars, possibly giving them a detectable signature.

The scientists, Vladimir Dzhunushaliev at the Eurasian National University in Kazakhstan and coauthors, have posted their investigation of the possibility of wormholes between stars on Read more:

The scientists began investigating the idea of wormholes between stars when they were researching what kinds of astrophysical objects could serve as entrances to wormholes. According to previous models, some of these objects could look similar to stars.

This idea led the scientists to wonder if wormholes might exist in otherwise ordinary stars and neutron stars. From a distance, these stars would look very much like normal stars (and normal neutron stars), but they might have a few differences that could be detectable.

To investigate these differences, the researchers developed a model of an ordinary star with a tunnel at the star’s center, through which matter could move. Two stars that share a wormhole would have a unique connection, since they are associated with the two mouths of the wormhole. Because exotic matter in the wormhole could flow like a fluid between the stars, both stars would likely pulse in an unusual way. This pulsing could lead to the release of various kinds of energy, such as ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays.

For now, the difficult part is calculating exactly what kinds of oscillations are occurring, and what kind of energy is being released. This information would allow scientists to predict what a wormhole-containing star might look like from Earth, and begin searching for these otherwise normal-looking stars.

More information: Vladimir Dzhunushaliev, et al. “A Star Harbouring a Wormhole at its Center.

Read also: The Search for Phantom “Wormhole Stars”

Written by physicsgg

September 1, 2011 at 6:39 pm