## Archive for the ‘**QUANTUM PHYSICS**’ Category

## Reality as a Vector in Hilbert Space

**Sean M. Carroll**

I defend the extremist position that the fundamental ontology of the world consists of a vector in Hilbert space evolving according to the Schrödinger equation. The laws of physics are determined solely by the energy eigenspectrum of the Hamiltonian. The structure of our observed world, including space and fields living within it, should arise as a higher-level emergent description. I sketch how this might come about, although much work remains to be done.

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## Uncertainty and the weirdness of classical physics

Edwin Steiner explore the concepts of uncertainty and probability as aspects of the common empirical basis of classical and quantum physics.

## Discovery of the Relativistic Schrödinger Equation

**Kamal Barley, José Vega-Guzmán, Sergei K. Suslov**

We discuss the discovery of the relativistic wave equation for a spin-zero charged particle in the Coulomb field by Erwin Schrödinger (and elaborate on why he didn’t publish it).

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## Sidney Coleman’s Dirac Lecture “Quantum Mechanics in Your Face”

This is a write-up of Sidney Coleman’s classic lecture first given as a Dirac Lecture at Cambridge University and later recorded when repeated at the New England sectional meeting of the American Physical Society (April 9, 1994). My sources have been this recording and a copy of the slides Sidney send to me after he gave the lecture as a Physics Colloquium at Stanford University some time between 1995 and 1998. To preserve both the scientific content and most of the charm, I have kept the editing to a minimum, but did add a bibliography containing the references Sidney mentioned.–Martin Greiter

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## Quantum clocks observe classical and quantum time dilation

**Alexander R. H. Smith & Mehdi Ahmadi**

At the intersection of quantum theory and relativity lies the possibility of a clock experiencing a superposition of proper times. We consider quantum clocks constructed from the internal degrees of relativistic particles that move through curved spacetime. The probability that one clock reads a given proper time conditioned on another clock reading a different proper time is derived. From this conditional probability distribution, it is shown that when the center-of-mass of these clocks move in localized momentum wave packets they observe classical time dilation. We then illustrate a quantum correction to the time dilation observed by a clock moving in a superposition of localized momentum wave packets that has the potential to be observed in experiment. The Helstrom-Holevo lower bound is used to derive a proper time-energy/mass uncertainty relation.

read more at https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18264-4

## Black Holes and Quantum Gravity

**Aurélien Barrau**

ALTHOUGH BLACK HOLES were first imagined in the late eighteenth century, it was not until Karl Schwarzchild devised a solution to Einstein’s field equations in 1915 that they were accurately described. Despite Schwarzchild’s pioneering work, black holes were still widely thought to be purely theoretical, and so devoid of physical meaning. This view persisted until recent decades, an accumulation of observational evidence removing any lingering doubts about their existence. Beyond their obvious interest as astrophysical phenomena, black holes may, in time, come to be considered a laboratory for new physics. It is conceivable that black holes could be used to study quantum gravity; and a complete and consistent theory of quantum gravity remains the most elusive goal in theoretical physics…

Read more at https://inference-review.com/article/black-holes-and-quantum-gravity

## The thermodynamics of clocks

**G J Milburn**

All clocks, classical or quantum, are open non equilibrium irreversible systems subject to the constraints of thermodynamics. Using examples I show that these constraints necessarily limit the performance of clocks and that good clocks require large energy dissipation. For periodic clocks, operating on a limit cycle, this is a consequence of phase diffusion. It is also true for non periodic clocks (for example, radio carbon dating) but due to telegraph noise not to phase diffusion. In this case a key role is played by accurate measurements that decrease entropy, thereby raising the free energy of the clock, and requires access to a low entropy reservoir. In the quantum case, for which thermal noise is replaced by quantum noise (spontaneous emission or tunnelling), measurement plays an essential role for both periodic and non periodic clocks. The paper concludes with a discussion of the Tolman relations and Rovelli’s thermal time hypothesis in terms of clock thermodynamics.

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## The Beginning of the Nuclear Age

**M. Shifman**

The article below is based on lectures delivered to new students remotely in the course of orientation. It presents the quantum theory tree from its inception a century ago till today. The main focus is on the nuclear physics – HEP branch.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.05001