**Kamal Barley, José Vega-Guzmán, Sergei K. Suslov**

We discuss the discovery of the relativistic wave equation for a spin-zero charged particle in the Coulomb field by Erwin Schrödinger (and elaborate on why he didn’t publish it).

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# Category Archives: QUANTUM PHYSICS

# Sidney Coleman’s Dirac Lecture “Quantum Mechanics in Your Face”

This is a write-up of Sidney Coleman’s classic lecture first given as a Dirac Lecture at Cambridge University and later recorded when repeated at the New England sectional meeting of the American Physical Society (April 9, 1994). My sources have been this recording and a copy of the slides Sidney send to me after he gave the lecture as a Physics Colloquium at Stanford University some time between 1995 and 1998. To preserve both the scientific content and most of the charm, I have kept the editing to a minimum, but did add a bibliography containing the references Sidney mentioned.–Martin Greiter

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# Quantum clocks observe classical and quantum time dilation

**Alexander R. H. Smith & Mehdi Ahmadi**

At the intersection of quantum theory and relativity lies the possibility of a clock experiencing a superposition of proper times. We consider quantum clocks constructed from the internal degrees of relativistic particles that move through curved spacetime. The probability that one clock reads a given proper time conditioned on another clock reading a different proper time is derived. From this conditional probability distribution, it is shown that when the center-of-mass of these clocks move in localized momentum wave packets they observe classical time dilation. We then illustrate a quantum correction to the time dilation observed by a clock moving in a superposition of localized momentum wave packets that has the potential to be observed in experiment. The Helstrom-Holevo lower bound is used to derive a proper time-energy/mass uncertainty relation.

read more at https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18264-4

# Black Holes and Quantum Gravity

**Aurélien Barrau**

ALTHOUGH BLACK HOLES were first imagined in the late eighteenth century, it was not until Karl Schwarzchild devised a solution to Einstein’s field equations in 1915 that they were accurately described. Despite Schwarzchild’s pioneering work, black holes were still widely thought to be purely theoretical, and so devoid of physical meaning. This view persisted until recent decades, an accumulation of observational evidence removing any lingering doubts about their existence. Beyond their obvious interest as astrophysical phenomena, black holes may, in time, come to be considered a laboratory for new physics. It is conceivable that black holes could be used to study quantum gravity; and a complete and consistent theory of quantum gravity remains the most elusive goal in theoretical physics…

Read more at https://inference-review.com/article/black-holes-and-quantum-gravity

# The thermodynamics of clocks

**G J Milburn**

All clocks, classical or quantum, are open non equilibrium irreversible systems subject to the constraints of thermodynamics. Using examples I show that these constraints necessarily limit the performance of clocks and that good clocks require large energy dissipation. For periodic clocks, operating on a limit cycle, this is a consequence of phase diffusion. It is also true for non periodic clocks (for example, radio carbon dating) but due to telegraph noise not to phase diffusion. In this case a key role is played by accurate measurements that decrease entropy, thereby raising the free energy of the clock, and requires access to a low entropy reservoir. In the quantum case, for which thermal noise is replaced by quantum noise (spontaneous emission or tunnelling), measurement plays an essential role for both periodic and non periodic clocks. The paper concludes with a discussion of the Tolman relations and Rovelli’s thermal time hypothesis in terms of clock thermodynamics.

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# The Beginning of the Nuclear Age

**M. Shifman**

The article below is based on lectures delivered to new students remotely in the course of orientation. It presents the quantum theory tree from its inception a century ago till today. The main focus is on the nuclear physics – HEP branch.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.05001

# Teaching gauge theory to first year students

**Nils-Erik Bomark**

One of the biggest revelations of 20th century physics, is virtually unheard of outside the inner circles of particle physics. This is the gauge theory, the foundation for how all physical interactions are described and a guiding principle for almost all work on new physics theories. Is it not our duty as physicists to try and spread this knowledge to a wider audience?

Here, two simple gauge theory models are presented that should be understandable without any advanced mathematics or physics and it is demonstrated how they can be used to show how gauge symmetries are used to construct the standard model of particle physics. This is also used to describe the real reason we need the Higgs field.

Though these concepts are complicated and abstract, it seems possible for at least first year students to understand the main ideas. Since they typically are very interested in cutting edge physics, they do appreciate the effort and enjoy the more detail insight into modern particle physics. These results are certainly encouraging more efforts in this direction.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.02162

# The subtle sound of quantum jumps

**Antoine Tilloy**

Could we hear the pop of a wave-function collapse, and if so, what would it sound like? There exist reconstructions or modifications of quantum mechanics (collapse models) where this archetypal signature of randomness exists and can in principle be witnessed. But, perhaps surprisingly, the resulting sound is disappointingly banal, indistinguishable from any other click. The problem of finding the right description of the world between two completely different classes of models — where wave functions jump and where they do not — is empirically undecidable. Behind this seemingly trivial observation lie deep lessons about the rigidity of quantum mechanics, the difficulty to blame unpredictability on intrinsic randomness, and more generally the physical limitations to our knowledge of reality.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.15420