**Arshia Anjum, Sriman Srisa Saran Mishra**

Gravity plays an important part in the experiments and discoveries of the modern world. But how was it discovered? Surely Newton and Einstein were not the only people to observe it and account for it. It had been a long path before the full theory for Gravitation could be formulated with open ends for more add-ons and modifications. All the contributions from across the world and different eras helped in the discovery of gravity as a whole new concept and area of research with a major contribution from the Greeks. This 3 article series lists out the important curves in the carefully carved path of gravitational discovery. The first article summarises the development of interest in the cosmos and the growth of scientific knowledge through ancient theories and observations.

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# Category Archives: History and Philosophy of Physics

# The thermodynamics of clocks

**G J Milburn**

All clocks, classical or quantum, are open non equilibrium irreversible systems subject to the constraints of thermodynamics. Using examples I show that these constraints necessarily limit the performance of clocks and that good clocks require large energy dissipation. For periodic clocks, operating on a limit cycle, this is a consequence of phase diffusion. It is also true for non periodic clocks (for example, radio carbon dating) but due to telegraph noise not to phase diffusion. In this case a key role is played by accurate measurements that decrease entropy, thereby raising the free energy of the clock, and requires access to a low entropy reservoir. In the quantum case, for which thermal noise is replaced by quantum noise (spontaneous emission or tunnelling), measurement plays an essential role for both periodic and non periodic clocks. The paper concludes with a discussion of the Tolman relations and Rovelli’s thermal time hypothesis in terms of clock thermodynamics.

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# The subtle sound of quantum jumps

**Antoine Tilloy**

Could we hear the pop of a wave-function collapse, and if so, what would it sound like? There exist reconstructions or modifications of quantum mechanics (collapse models) where this archetypal signature of randomness exists and can in principle be witnessed. But, perhaps surprisingly, the resulting sound is disappointingly banal, indistinguishable from any other click. The problem of finding the right description of the world between two completely different classes of models — where wave functions jump and where they do not — is empirically undecidable. Behind this seemingly trivial observation lie deep lessons about the rigidity of quantum mechanics, the difficulty to blame unpredictability on intrinsic randomness, and more generally the physical limitations to our knowledge of reality.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.15420

# James Chadwick: ahead of his time

**Gerhard Ecker**

James Chadwick is known for his discovery of the neutron. Many of his earlier findings and ideas in the context of weak and strong nuclear forces are much less known. This biographical sketch attempts to highlight the achievements of a scientist who paved the way for contemporary subatomic physics.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.06926

# Physics and the Pythagorean Theorem

**James Overduin, Richard Conn Henry**

Pythagoras’ theorem lies at the heart of physics as well as mathematics, yet its historical origins are obscure. We highlight a purely pictorial, gestalt-like proof that may have originated during the Zhou Dynasty. Generalizations of the Pythagorean theorem to three, four and more dimensions undergird fundamental laws including the energy-momentum relation of particle physics and the field equations of general relativity, and may hint at future unified theories. The intuitive, “pre-mathematical” nature of this theorem thus lends support to the Eddingtonian view that “the stuff of the world is mind-stuff.”

Read more https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.10671

# Memory and entropy

**Carlo Rovelli**

I study the physical nature of traces (or memories). Surprisingly, (i) systems separation with (ii) temperature differences and (iii) long thermalization times, are sufficient conditions to produce macroscopic traces. Traces of the past are ubiquitous because these conditions are largely satisfied in our universe. I quantify these thermodynamical conditions for memory and derive an expression for the maximum amount of information stored in such memories, as a function of the relevant thermodynamical parameters. This mechanism transforms low entropy into available information.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/2003.06687.pdf

# Roland Eotvos: scientist, statesman, educator

**András PATKÓS**, Institute of Physics, Eötvös University

This lecture recalls the memory of Baron Roland Eötvös, an outstanding figure of the experimental exploration of the gravitational interaction and “funding father” of applied geophysics. Beyond the scientific achievements his contribution to the development of the modern Hungarian schooling and higher educational system, most importantly, the foundation of an innovative institution of teacher’s training did not lose its contemporary significance. This lecture has been invited by the organizers of this Conference in response to the decision of UNESCO to commemorate worldwide the death centenary of the most outstanding Hungarian experimental physicist of modern times.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2002/2002.05743.pdf

# Joseph Polchinski: A Biographical Memoir

**Raphael Bousso, Fernando Quevedo, Steven Weinberg**

Joseph Polchinski (1954-2018), one of the the leading theoretical physicists of the past 50 years, was an exceptionally broad and deep thinker. He made fundamental contributions to quantum field theory, advancing the role of the renormalization group, and to cosmology, addressing the cosmological constant problem. Polchinski’s work on D-branes revolutionized string theory and led to the discovery of a nonperturbative quantum theory of gravity. His recent, incisive reformulation of the black hole information paradox presents us with a profound challenge. Joe was deeply devoted to his family, a beloved colleague and advisor, an excellent writer, and an accomplished athlete.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/2002.02371.pdf