Neutrino Astronomy with IceCube and Beyond

Kevin J. Meagher on behalf of the IceCube Collaboration
The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic kilometer neutrino telescope located at the geographic South Pole. Cherenkov radiation emitted by charged secondary particles from neutrino interactions is observed by IceCube using an array of 5160 photomultiplier tubes embedded between a depth of 1.5 km to 2.5 km in the Antarctic glacial ice. The detection of astrophysical neutrinos is a primary goal of IceCube and has now been realized with the discovery of a diffuse, high-energy flux consisting of neutrino events from tens of TeV up to several PeV. Many analyses have been performed to identify the source of these neutrinos, including correlations with active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and the Galactic plane. IceCube also conducts multi-messenger campaigns to alert other observatories of possible neutrino transients in real time. However, the source of these neutrinos remains elusive as no corresponding electromagnetic counterparts have been identified. This proceeding will give an overview of the detection principles of IceCube, the properties of the observed astrophysical neutrinos, the search for corresponding sources (including real-time searches), and plans for a next-generation neutrino detector, IceCube-Gen2.
Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.00383.pdf

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Where is Particle Physics Going?

John Ellis
The answer to the question in the title is: in search of new physics beyond the Standard Model, for which there are many motivations, including the likely instability of the electroweak vacuum, dark matter, the origin of matter, the masses of neutrinos, the naturalness of the hierarchy of mass scales, cosmological inflation and the search for quantum gravity. So far, however, there are no clear indications about the theoretical solutions to these problems, nor the experimental strategies to resolve them. It makes sense now to prepare various projects for possible future accelerators, so as to be ready for decisions when the physics outlook becomes clearer. Paraphrasing George Harrison, “If you don’t yet know where you’re going, any road may take you there.”

Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.02821.pdf

Neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions in the Sun

Joakim Edsjo, Jessica Elevant, Rikard Enberg, Carl Niblaeus
Cosmic rays hitting the solar atmosphere generate neutrinos that interact and oscillate in the Sun and oscillate on the way to Earth. These neutrinos could potentially be detected with neutrino telescopes and will be a background for searches for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun. We calculate the flux of neutrinos from these cosmic ray interactions in the Sun and also investigate the interactions near a detector on Earth that give rise to muons. We compare this background with both regular Earth-atmospheric neutrinos and signals from dark matter annihilation in the Sun. Our calculation is performed with an event-based Monte Carlo approach that should be suitable as a simulation tool for experimental collaborations. Our program package is released publicly along with this paper.
Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.02892.pdf

The Making of the Standard Theory

John Iliopoulos

1. Introduction
The construction of the Standard Model, which became gradually the Standard Theory of elementary particle physics, is, probably, the most remarkable achievement of modern theoretical physics. In this Chapter we shall deal mostly with the weak interactions. It may sound strange that a revolution in particle physics was initiated by the study of the weakest among them (the effects of the gravitational interactions are not measurable in high energy physics), but we shall see that the weak interactions triggered many such revolutions and we shall have the occasion to meditate on the fundamental significance of “tiny” effects. We shall outline the various steps, from the early days of the Fermi theory to the recent experimental discoveries, which confirmed all the fundamental predictions of the Theory. We shall follow a phenomenological approach, in which the introduction of every new concept is motivated by the search of a consistent theory which agrees with experiment. As we shall explain, this is only part of the story, the other part being the requirement of mathematical consistency… Read more at http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/pdf/10.1142/9789814733519_0002

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What hadron collider is required to discover or falsify natural supersymmetry?

Howard Baer, Vernon Barger, James S. Gainer, Peisi Huang, Michael Savoy, Hasan Serce, Xerxes Tata
Weak scale supersymmetry (SUSY) remains a compelling extension of the Standard Model because it stabilizes the quantum corrections to the Higgs and W, Z boson masses. In natural SUSY models these corrections are, by definition, never much larger than the corresponding masses. Natural SUSY models all have an upper limit on the gluino mass, too high to lead to observable signals even at the high luminosity LHC. However, in models with gaugino mass unification, the wino is sufficiently light that supersymmetry discovery is possible in other channels over the entire natural SUSY parameter space with no worse than 3% fine-tuning. Here, we examine the SUSY reach in more general models with and without gaugino mass unification (specifically, natural generalized mirage mediation), and show that the high energy LHC (HE-LHC), a pp collider with \sqrt{s}=33 TeV, will be able to detect the gluino signal over the entire allowed mass range. Thus, HE-LHC would either discover or conclusively falsify natural SUSY.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.06588.pdf

Qbe: Quark Matter on Rubik’s Cube

Figure of Albert Einstein, the smile of Mona Lisa and Qbe: Quark Matter on Rubik’s 3x3 Cube, next to the Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe. Photo courtesy of prof. T. Kodama, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Figure of Albert Einstein, the smile of Mona Lisa and Qbe: Quark
Matter on Rubik’s 3×3 Cube, next to the Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the
Laws of the Universe. Photo courtesy of prof. T. Kodama, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

T. Csörgő
Quarks can be represented on the faces of the 3×3 Rubik’s cube with the help of a symbolic representation of quarks and anti-quarks, that was
delevoped originally for a deck of elementary particle cards, called Quark Matter Card Game. Cubing the cards leads to a model of the nearly perfect
fluid of Quark Matter on Rubik’s cube, or Qbe, which can be utilized to provide hands-on experience with the high entropy density, overall color
neutrality and net baryon free, nearly perfect fluid nature of Quark Matter.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.06217.pdf