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Theoretical Models of Dark Energy

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There is strong evidence for the existence of dark energy. Plotted are Ωm - ΩΛ (left panel) and Ω m - w (right panel) confidence regions constrained from the observations of SN Ia, CMB and BAO

There is strong evidence for the existence of dark energy. Plotted are Ωm – ΩΛ (left panel) and Ωm – w (right panel) confidence regions constrained from the observations of SN Ia, CMB and BAO

Jaewon Yoo, Yuki Watanabe
Mounting observational data confirm that about 73% of the energy density consists of dark energy which is responsible for the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. We present observational evidences and dark energy projects. We then review various theoretical ideas that have been proposed to explain the origin of dark energy; they contain the cosmological constant, modified matter models, modified gravity models and the inhomogeneous model. The cosmological constant suffers from two major problems: one regarding fine-tuning and the other regarding coincidence. To solve them there arose modified matter models such as quintessence, k-essence, coupled dark energy, and unified dark energy. We compare those models by presenting attractive aspects, new rising problems and possible solutions. Furthermore we review modified gravity models that lead to late-time accelerated expansion without invoking a new form of dark energy; they contain f(R) gravity and the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. We also discuss observational constraints on those models and on future modified gravity theories. Finally we review the inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model that drops an assumption of the spatial homogeneity of the Universe. We also present basics of cosmology and scalar field theory, which are useful especially for students and novices to understand dark energy models.
Read more: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1212.4726v1.pdf

Written by physicsgg

December 20, 2012 at 9:24 am

Posted in COSMOLOGY, DARK ENERGY

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