**Erik Curiel**

Although black holes are objects of central importance across many fields of physics, there is no agreed upon definition for them, a fact that does not seem to be widely recognized. Physicists in different fields conceive of and reason about them in radically different, and often conflicting, ways. All those ways, however, seem sound in the relevant contexts. After examining and comparing many of the definitions used in practice, I consider the problems that the lack of a universally accepted definition leads to, and discuss whether one is in fact needed for progress in the physics of black holes. I conclude that, within reasonable bounds, the profusion of different definitions is in fact a virtue, making the investigation of black holes possible and fruitful in all the many different kinds of problems about them that physicists consider, although one must take care in trying to translate results between fields.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1808.01507.pdf

# Quantum treatment of Verlinde’s entropic force conjecture

**A. Plastino, M. C. Rocca, G. L. Ferri**

Verlinde conjectured that gravitation is an emergent entropic force. This surprising conjecture was proved in [Physica A **505** (2018) 190] within a purely classical context. Here, we appeal to a quantum environment to deal with the conjecture in the case of bosons and consider also the classical limit of quantum mechanics (QM)….

Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1808.01330.pdf

# The Hawking temperature, the uncertainty principle and quantum black holes

**Jorge Pinochet**

In 1974, Stephen Hawking theoretically discovered that black holes emit thermal radiation and have a characteristic temperature, known as the Hawking temperature. The aim of this paper is to present a simple heuristic derivation of the Hawking temperature, based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The result obtained coincides exactly with Hawking’s original finding. In parallel, this work seeks to clarify the physical meaning of Hawking’s discovery. This article may be useful as pedagogical material in a high school physics course or in an introductory undergraduate physics course.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1808.05121.pdf

# The Gibbs Paradox

**Simon Saunders**

The Gibbs Paradox is essentially a set of open questions as to how sameness of gases or fluids (or masses, more generally) are to be treated in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. They have a variety of answers, some restricted to quantum theory (there is no classical solution), some to classical theory (the quantum case is different). The solution offered here applies to both in equal measure, and is based on the concept of particle indistinguishability (in the classical case, Gibbs’ notion of ‘generic phase’). Correctly understood, it is the elimination of sequence position as a labelling device, where sequences enter at the level of the tensor (or Cartesian) product of one-particle state spaces. In both cases it amounts to passing to the quotient space under permutations. ‘Distinguishability’, in the sense in which it is usually used in classical statistical mechanics, is a mathematically convenient, but physically muddled, fiction.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1808/1808.01953.pdf

# A Poet of Computation Who Uncovers Distant Truths

**The theoretical computer scientist Constantinos Daskalakis has won the Rolf Nevanlinna Prize for explicating core questions in game theory and machine learning.**

Scroll down to the bottom of Constantinos Daskalakis’ web page — past links to his theoretical computer science papers and his doctoral students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology — and you will come upon a spare, 21-line poem by Constantine Cavafy, “The Satrapy.”

Written in 1910, it addresses an unnamed individual who is “made for fine and great works” but who, having met with small-mindedness and indifference, gives up on his dreams and goes to the court of the Persian king Artaxerxes. The king lavishes satrapies (provincial governorships) upon him, but his soul, Cavafy writes, “weeps for other things … the hard-won and inestimable Well Done; the Agora, the Theater, and the Laurels” — all the things Artaxerxes cannot give him. “Where will you find these in a satrapy,” Cavafy asks, “and what life can you live without these.”

For Daskalakis, the poem serves as a sort of talisman, to guard him against base motives. “It’s a moral compass, if you want,” he said. “I want to have this constant reminder that there are some noble ideas that you’re serving, and don’t forget that when you make decisions.” …

Read more at https://www.quantamagazine.org/computer-scientist-constantinos-daskalakis-wins-nevanlinna-prize-20180801/

Read also: **The Work of Constantinos Daskalakis**

# Introduction to neutrino astronomy

**Andrea Gallo Rosso, Carlo Mascaretti, Andrea Palladino, Francesco Vissani**

This writeup is an introduction to neutrino astronomy, addressed to astronomers and written by astroparticle physicists. While the focus is on achievements and goals in neutrino astronomy, rather than on the aspects connected to particle physics, we will introduce the particle physics concepts needed to appreciate those aspects that depend on the peculiarity of the neutrinos. The detailed layout is as follows: In Sect.~1, we introduce the neutrinos, examine their interactions, and present neutrino detectors and telescopes. In Sect.~2, we discuss solar neutrinos, that have been detected and are matter of intense (theoretical and experimental) studies. In Sect.~3, we focus on supernova neutrinos, that inform us on a very dramatic astrophysical event and can tell us a lot on the phenomenon of gravitational collapse. In Sect.~4, we discuss the highest energy neutrinos, a very recent and lively research field. In Sect.~5, we review the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations and assess its relevance for neutrino astronomy. Finally, we offer a brief overall assessment and a summary in Sect.~6. The material is selected – i.e., not all achievements are reviewed – and furthermore it is kept to an introductory level, but efforts are made to highlight current research issues. In order to help the beginner, we prefer to limit the list of references, opting whenever possible for review works and books.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1806.06339.pdf

# Thermodynamics of Machine Learning

**Alexander A. Alemi, Ian Fischer**

In this work we offer a framework for reasoning about a wide class of existing objectives in machine learning. We develop a formal correspondence between this work and thermodynamics and discuss its implications.

Read more at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1807.04162.pdf