Where’s the Martian water? Evidence in meteorites on Earth indicates a Mars water reservoir

This illustration depicts Martian water reservoirs. Recent research provides evidence for the existence of a third reservoir that is intermediate in isotopic composition between the Red Planet’s mantle and its current atmosphere. These results support the hypothesis that a buried cryosphere accounts for a large part of the initial water budget of Mars. Image Credit: NASA

This illustration depicts Martian water reservoirs. Recent research provides evidence for the existence of a third reservoir that is intermediate in isotopic composition between the Red Planet’s mantle and its current atmosphere. These results support the hypothesis that a buried cryosphere accounts for a large part of the initial water budget of Mars.
Image Credit: NASA

NASA and an international team of planetary scientists have found evidence in meteorites on Earth that indicates Mars has a distinct and global reservoir of water or ice near its surface.
Though controversy still surrounds the origin, abundance and history of water on Mars, this discovery helps resolve the question of where the “missing Martian water” may have gone. Scientists continue to study the planet’s historical record, trying to understand the apparent shift from an early wet and warm climate to today’s dry and cool surface conditions.
The reservoir’s existence also may be a key to understanding climate history and the potential for life on Mars. The team’s findings are reported in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Continue reading Where’s the Martian water? Evidence in meteorites on Earth indicates a Mars water reservoir

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Bang or Bounce

Paul H. Frampton
Following up an earlier suggestion of how the Tolman Entropy Conundrum (TEC) can be solved in a cyclic cosmology using the Come Back Empty (CBE) assumption with phantom dark energy, here we show how the same CBE strategy may work with a cosmological constant in the expansion era. As in the earlier case, this leads to a multiverse, actually an infiniverse, with the concomitant issues of predictivity and testability.
Here we show how extreme flatness and homogeneity at the bounce are natural properties of the contraction era, interestingly without any necessity for an inflationary era at the beginning of the present expansion.
Essential ingredients in the solution of TEC are CBE contraction and a careful treatment of what is meant by the visible universe.
Read more at http://arxiv.org/pdf/1411.7887v1.pdf

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This Is What Astronauts Actually See on Reentry

pjedrb8vvgp7zoc5yqacEver wondered what astronauts see when they return from the International Space Station at the end of their mission, tucked tightly into a Soyuz space capsule? Well, it’s this.

In this video, astronaut Mike Hopkins (Expedition 37/38 )—who returned to Earth back in March—shows you. The real fireworks start at 12:40.

Oh and just as a reminder, this is what the reentry rollercoaster that is Soyuz looks like on the inside:
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Read more at gizmodo.com

‘Fibonacci quasiparticle’ could form basis of future quantum computers

Topological quantum computing (TQC) is a newer type of quantum computing that uses “braids” of particle tracks, rather than actual particles such as ions and electrons, as the qubits to implement computations. Using braids has one important advantage: it makes TQCs practically immune to the small perturbations in the environment that cause decoherence in particle-based qubits and often lead to high error rates.

Ever since TQC was first proposed in 1997, experimentally realizing the appropriate braids has been extremely difficult. For one thing, the braids are formed not by the trajectories of ordinary particles, but by the trajectories of exotic quasiparticles (particle-like excitations) called anyons. Also, movements of the anyons must be non-Abelian, a property similar to the commutative property in which changing the order of their movements must not change their final tracks. In most proposals of TQC so far, the non-Abelian statistics of the anyons has not been powerful enough, even in theory, for universal TQC.

Now in a new study published in Physical Review Letters [http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3383], physicists Abolhassan Vaezi at Cornell University and Maissam Barkeshli at Microsoft’s research lab Station Q have theoretically shown that anyons tunneling in a double-layer system can transition to an exotic non-Abelian state that contains “Fibonacci” anyons that are powerful enough for universal TQC…. Continue reading ‘Fibonacci quasiparticle’ could form basis of future quantum computers

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Slow Life

“Slow” marine animals show their secret life under high magnification. Corals and sponges build coral reefs and play crucial roles in the biosphere, yet we know almost nothing about their daily lives. These animals are actually very mobile creatures, however their motion is only detectable at different time scales compared to ours and requires time lapses to be seen.
This clip, as well as stock footage, is available in UltraHD 4k resolution. Make sure you watch it on a large screen! You won’t be able to appreciate this clip or see individual cells moving in a sponge on a smartphone.

microworldsphotography.com